Ekonomiczne konsekwencje przestrzennej decentralizacji i centralizacji miasta na podstawie literatury zagranicznej

Piotr Lityński


Artykuł ma charakter teoretyczny i opiera się na przeglądzie literatury zagranicznej - anglojęzycznej - dotyczącej ekonomicznych kosztów i korzyści przestrzennej centralizacji i decentralizacji miasta. Przedstawiono definicje istoty koncepcji przestrzennej centralizacji miasta, jak i jego decentralizacji. Wskazano metodyczne podstawy oceny ekonomicznej efektywności obu wymienionych koncepcji. Skatalogowano ekonomiczne koszty oraz korzyści wynikające z procesów decentralizacyjnych jak i wdrażania koncepcji centralizacyjnych. Jako przykład określania kosztów i korzyści posłużono się koncepcjami urban sprawl i miasta kompaktowego.

Słowa kluczowe

centralizacja przestrzenna, decentralizacja przestrzenna, urban sprawl, miasto kompaktowe, ekonomiczne koszty, ekonomiczne korzyści

Pełny tekst



Anas A. [2012], Discovering the Efficiency of Urban Sprawl [w:] Urban Economics and Planning, red. N. Brooks, K. Donaghy, G.J. Knaap, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Anas A., Rhee H.J. [2006], Curbing Excess Sprawl with Congestion Tolls and Urban Boundaries, „Regional Science and Urban Economics", nr 4, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.regsciurbeco.2006.03.003.

Baker K. [2004], Review of Housing Supply, Delivering Stability: Securing Our Future Housing Needs, Final Report - Recommendations, HM Treasury, London.

Beyond Sprawl: New Patterns of Growth to Fit the New California [1995], Bank of America, San Francisco.

Bhatta B. [2010], Analysis of Urban Growth and Sprawl from Remote Sensing Data, Advances in Geographic Information Science, Springer-Verlag, Berlin-Heidelberg.

Bouwman M.E. [2002], Changing Mobility Patterns in a Compact City: Environmental Impacts [w:] Compact Cities and Sustainable Urban Development: A Critical Assessment of Policies and Plans from an International Perspective, red. G. de Roo, D. Miller, Aldershot, United Kingdom, Ashgate.

Breheny M. [1992], Sustainable Development and Urban Form, Pion, London.

Breheny M. [1996], Centrists, Decentrists and Compromisers: Viewson the Future of Urban Form [w:] The Compact City: A Sustainable Urban Form?, red. M. Jenks, E. Burton, K. Williams, E&FN Spoon, London.

Breheny M. [1997], Urban Compaction: Feasible and Acceptable?, „Cities", nr 14(4), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0264-2751(97)00005-x.

Breheny M., Gordon I., Archer S. [1998], Building Densities and Sustainable Cities, Project Outline 5, Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council Sustainable Cities Programme, United Kingdom, Swindon.

Brueckner J.K. [2000], Urban Sprawl: Diagnosis and Remedies, „International Regional Science Review", nr 23, http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/016001700761012710.

Burchell R.W., Lowenstein G., Dolphin W.R., Galley C.C., Downs A., Seskin S., Still K.G., Moore T. [2002], The Costs of Sprawl. TCRP Report 74, National Academy Press, Washington D.C.

Burton E. [2000], The Compact City: Just or Just Compact? A Preliminary Analysis, „Urban Studies", vol. 37(11), http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00420980050162184.

Calthorpe P. [1993], The Next American Metropolis: Ecology, Community and the American Dream, Princeton Architectural Press, New York.

Cervero R. [2001], Efficient Urbanization: Economic Performance and the Shape of the Metropolis, „Urban Studies", vol. 38(10), http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00420980120084804.

Cheshire P., Sheppard S. [2002], The Welfare Economics of Land Use Planning, „Journal of Urban Economics", vol. 52(2), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0094-1190(02)00003-7.

Ciccone A., Hall R.E. [1996], Productivity and the Density of Economic Activity, „American Economic Review", vol. 86(1).

Compact City Policies: A Comparative Assessment [2012], OECD Green Growth Studies, OECD Publishing, Paris.

Costs of Sprawl: 2000, TCRP Report No. 74 [2002], Transportation Research Board and National Research Council, National Academies Press, Washington D.C.

Costs of Sprawl: Environmental and Economic Costs of Alternative Residential Development Patterns at the Urban Fringe [1974], Real Estate Research Corporation, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington D.C.

Daneshopur A., Shakibamanesh A. [2011], Compact City: Dose It Create an Obligatory Context for Urban Sustainability?, „International Journal of Architectural Engineering & Urban Planning", vol. 21, nr 1.

Downs A. [1994], New Visions for Metropolitan America, The Brookings Institution, Washington D.C.

Elkin T., McLaren D., Hillman M. [1991], Reviving the City: Towards Sustainable Urban Development, Friends of the Earth, London.

Ewing R. [1997], Is Los Angeles-Style Sprawl Desirable?, „Journal of the American Planning Association", vol. 63(1), http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01944369708975728.

Fulton W., Pendall R., Nguyen M., Harrison A. [2002], Who Sprawls Most? How Growth Patterns Differ Across the U.S., Brookings, Washington D.C.

Future Forms and Design for Sustainable Cities [2005], red. N. Dempsey, M. Jenks, Architectural Press, Oxford.

Gordon P., Richardson H.W. [1997], Are Compact Cities a Desirable Planning Goal?, „Journal of the American Planning Association", vol. 63(1), http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01944369708975727.

Gordon P., Richardson H.W. [1996], Employment Decentralization in U.S. Metropolitan Areas: Is Los Angeles an Outlier or the Norm?, „Environment and Planning A", vol. 28, http://dx.doi.org/10.1068/a281727.

Green Paper on the Urban Environment [1990], Commission of the European Communities (CEC), EUR 12902 EN, CEC, Brussels.

Guy S., Marvin S. [2000], Models and Pathways: The Diversity of Sustainable Urban Futures [w:] Achieving Sustainable Urban Form, red. K. Williams, E. Burton, M. Jenks, E&FN Spoon, London.

Hall P. [2001], Sustainable Cities or Town Cramming? [w:] Planning for a Sustainable Future, red. A. Layard, S. Davoudi, S. Batty, Spon, London.

Haughton G., Hunter C. [1994], Sustainable Cities, Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London.

Heimlich E., Anderson W.D. [2001], Development at the Urban Fringe and Beyond. Impacts on Agriculture and Rural Land. Agricultural Economic Report No. 803, „Economic Research Service", U.S. Department of Agricultural, Washington D.C.

Jackson K. [1985], The Crabgrass Frontier: The Suburbanization of the United States, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Jenks M. [2000], Compact Cities: Sustainable Urban Forms for Developing Countries, E&FN Spon, London.

Jenks M., Burton E., Williams K. [1996], Compact Cities and Sustainability: an Introduction [w:] The Compact City: A Sustainable Urban Form?, red. M. Jenks, E. Burton, K. Williams, E&FN Spoon, London.

Jones C., Leishman C., MacDonald C., Orr A., Watkins D. [2010], Economic Viability [w:] Dimensions of the Sustainable City, red. M. Jenks, C. Jones, Springer, Oxford.

Litman T. [2004], Understanding Smart Growth Savings, Victoria Transport Policy Institute.

Lucas R.E., Rossi-Hansberg E. [2002], On the Internal Structure of Cities, „Econometrica", vol. 70(4), Wiley-Blackwell, Cambridge.

McHarg I.L. [1969], Design with Nature. Garden City, Natural History Press, New York.

Mills E.S. [1999], The Brawl Over So-Called Sprawl, „Illinois Real Estate Letter", Summer.

Morikawa M. [2011], Economies of Density and Productivity in Service Industries: An Analysis of Personal-Service Industries Based on Establishment-Level Data, „The Review of Economics & Statistics", vol. 93(1), http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/rest_a_00065.

Mumford L. [1961], The City in History: Its Origins, its Transformations, and its Prospects, Harcourt Brace, New York.

Neuman M. [2005], The Compact City Fallacy, „Journal of Planning Education and Research (JPER)", vol. 25(1), http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0739456x04270466.

Newman P., Kenworthy J. [1989], Cities and Automobile Dependence: An International Sourcebook, Gower, England.

O'Neil D. [2000], The Smart Growth Tool Kit. Community Profiles and Case Studies to Advance Smart Growth Practices, Urban Land Institute, Washington D.C.

Perrsky J., Wiewel J. [2012], Urban Decentralization, Suburbanization, and Sprawl: an Equity Perspective [w:] Urban Economics and Planning, red. N. Brooks, K. Donaghy, G.J. Knaap, Oxford University Press, New York.

Porter D. [2002], Making Smart Growth Work, Urban Land Institute, Washington D.C.

Prud'homme R., Lee C.W. [1999], Size, Sprawl, Speed and Efficiency of Cities, „Urban Studies", vol. 36(11), http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0042098992638.

A Study on Regional Infrastructure Management in a De-populating Region, PRI Report No. 86 [2009], Policy Research Institute of Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism of Japan, Japan.

Tabuchi T. [1986], Urban Aglomeration, Capital Augmenting Technology, and Labor Market Equilibrium, „Journal of Urban Economics", vol. 20(2), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0094-1190(86)90008-2.

Thomas L., Cousins W. [2000], The Compact City: A Successful, Desirable and Achievable Urban Form? [w:] Achieving Sustainable Urban Form, red. K. Williams, E. Burton, M. Jenks, E&FN Spoon, London.

Towards a Green Economy: Pathways to Sustainable Development and Poverty Eradication: a Synthesis for Policy Makers [2011], UNEP, www.unep.org/greeneconomy (dostęp: 17.10.2013).

Troy P.N. [1992], The Evolution of Government Housing Policy: The Case of New South Wales 1901-41, „Housing Studies", vol. 7(3), http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02673039208720737.

Wassmer R.W. [2002], An Economic Perspective on Urban Sprawl: With an Application to the American West and a Test of the Efficacy of Urban Growth Boundaries, California State University, Sacramento.

Williams K. [1999], Urban Intensification Policies in England: Problems and Contradictions, „Land Use Policy", vol. 16(3), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0264-8377(99)00010-1.

DOI: https://doi.org/10.15678/ZNUEK.2014.0936.1204