Analysis of Key Factors Influencing Spice Traceability Systems: The Example of Black Pepper (Piper nigrum L.)



Słowa kluczowe:

black pepper, quality, transport, supply chains, traceability


Objective: To analyse key issues related to the pepper market, the transport of pepper and requirements during transport; to examine issues related to supply chain management of peppers (and, by extension, other spices and related products) with a particular emphasis on their traceability.

Research Design & Methods: Statistical data was collected and analysed along with the literature on the traceability systems of black pepper.

Findings: The study identified the main problems related to product identification, transparency and security of the data used in traceability systems.

Implications/Recommendations: Product traceability changes the perception of products on the market and increases confidence in supply chains. For the black pepper supply chain (BPSC), solutions that ensure process transparency and continuity of the information stream are paramount to reduce the possibility of product adulteration and other forms of fraud. Black pepper traceability should facilitate the detection of dangerous products and their withdrawal from the market. The ease with which traceability systems can control and reduce the costs associated with product aging and spoilage is less important for the trade of black pepper, but is nonetheless a factor.

Contribution: Recommendations are put forward for future studies on ensuring food safety and customer satisfaction as well as product reliability.


Download data is not yet available.


Badia-Melis R., Mishra P., Ruiz-Garcia L. (2015), Food Traceability: New Trends and Recent Advances. A Review, “Food Control”, vol. 57,

Bastian J., Zentes J. (2013), Supply Chain Transparency as a Key Prerequisite for Sustainable Agri-food Supply Chain Management, “The International Review of Retail, Distribution and Consumer Research”, vol. 23(5),

Becha H., Schröder M., Voorspuij J., Frazier T., Lind M. (2021), Global Data Exchange Standards: The Basis for Future Smart Container Digital Services (in:) Maritime Informatics, M. Lind, M. Michaelides, R. Ward, R. T. Watson (eds), Springer, Cham,

Beulens A., Broens D.-F., Folstar P., Hofstede G. (2005), Food Safety and Transparency in Food Chains and Networks. Relationships and Challenges, “Food Control”, vol. 16(6),

Bosona T., Gebresenbet G. (2013), Food Traceability as an Integral Part of Logistics Management in Food and Agricultural Supply Chain, “Food Control”, vol. 33(1),

Champion D., Stevens B., Ward R., Kerridge A. (2018), Can the ‘Blockchain’ Contribute to Achieving Global Food Security?, Science and Technology Facilities Council, Nottingham.

Codex Alimentarius (2014), Code of Hygienic Practice for Spices and Dried Aromatic Herbs, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, (accessed: 1.10.2022).

Codex Alimentarius (2018), Code of Hygienic Practice for Low-Moisture Foods. CXC75-2015, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, (accessed: 1.10.2022).

David A., Kumar C. G., Paul P. V. (2022), Blockchain Technology in the food Supply Chain: Empirical Analysis, “International Journal of Information Systems and Supply Chain Management”, vol. 15(3),

European Spice Association (2018), European Spice Association Quality Minima Document, ESA, (accessed: 1.10.2022).

Firouz M. S., Mohi-Alden K., Omid M. (2021), A Critical Review on Intelligent and Active Packaging in the Food Industry: Research and Development, “Food Research International”, vol. 141,

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (2022), FAOSTAT, (accessed: 1.10.2022).

Friha O., Ferrag M., Shu L., Maglaras L., Wang X. (2021), Internet of Things for the Future of Smart Agriculture: A Comprehensive Survey of Emerging Technologies, “IEEE/CAA Journal of Automatica Sinica”, vol. 8(4),

German Insurance Association (GDV e.V.) (2022), The Transport Information Service (TIS), (accessed: 1.10.2022).

Hu L., Yin C., Ma S., Liu Z. (2018), Assessing the Authenticity of Black Pepper Using Diffuse Reflectance Midinfrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy Coupled with Chemometrics, “Computers and Electronics in Agriculture”, vol. 154,

Kalpana S., Priyadarshini S., Maria Leena M., Moses J., Anandharamakrishnan C. (2019), Intelligent Packaging: Trends and Applications in Food Systems, “Trends in Food Science & Technology”, vol. 93,

Karlsen K., Dreyer B., Olsen P., Elvevoll E. (2013), Literature Review: Does a Common Theoretical Framework to Implement Food Traceability Exist?, “Food Control”, vol. 32(2),

Krishnamoorthy B., Parthasarathy V. (2010), Improvement of Black Pepper, “Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources”, vol. 5(003),

Lafeuille J.-L., Fregiere-Salomon A., Michelet A., Henry K. (2019), A Rapid Non-Targeted Method for Detecting the Adulteration of Black Pepper with a Broad Range of Endogenous and Exogenous Material at Economically Motivating Levels Using Micro-ATR-FT-MIR Imaging, “Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry”, vol. 68(1),

Montecchi M., Plangger K., West D. (2021), Supply Chain Transparency: A Bibliometric Review and Research Agenda, “International Journal of Production Economics”, vol. 238,

Newerli-Guz J. (2018), Towaroznawcze i konsumenckie aspekty jakości przypraw, Wydawnictwo Akademii Morskiej w Gdyni, Gdynia.

OECD (2022), The Observatory of Economics. Economic complexity rankings, (accessed 1.10.2022).

Olsen P., Borit M. (2013), How to Define Traceability, “Trends in Food Science”, vol. 29(2),

Parathasarathy V., Chempakam B., Zachariah T. (2008), Chemistry of Spices, CAB International, Oxfordshire,

Parvathy V., Swetha V., Sheeja T., Leela N., Chempakam B., Sasikumar B. (2014), DNA Barcoding to Detect Chilli Adulteration in Traded Black Pepper Powder, “Food Biotechnology”, vol. 28(1),

PN-A-86965:1997, Herbal Spices – Black Pepper, Polish Committee for Standardization.

Prophecy Market Insights (2022), GlobeNewswire, (accessed: 1.10.2022).

Ravindran P. (2001), Black Pepper, Piper nigrum, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants – Industrial Profiles, “Phytochemistry”, no. 58.

Ravindran P., Kallupurackal J. (2012), Black Pepper (in:) Handbook of Herbs and Spices, 2nd ed., ed. W. K. Peter, Woodhead Publishing, Sawston,

Regulation (EC) No 178/2002 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 January 2002 laying down the general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the European Food Safety Authority and laying down procedures in matters of food safety, (accessed: 1.10.2022).

Rivera-Perez A., Romero-Gonzalez R., Garrido Frenich A. (2021), Application of an Innovative Metabolomics Approach to Discriminate Geographical Origin and Processing of Black Pepper by Untargeted UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMS Analysis and Mid-level Data Fusion, “Food Research International”, vol. 150A,

Salampasis M., Tektonidis D., Kalogianni E. P. (2012), TraceALL: A Semantic Web Framework for Food Traceability Systems, “Journal of Systems and Information Technology”, vol. 14(4),

Schaarschmidt S., Spradau F., Mank H., Hiller P., Appel B., Bräunig J., Wichmann-Schauer H., Mader A. (2016), Reporting of Traceability and Food Safety Data in the Culinary Herb and Spice Chains, “Food Control”, vol. 83,

Tijan E., Jović M., Jardas M., Gulić M. (2019), The Single Window Concept in International Trade: Transport and Seaports, “Pomorstvo – Scientific Journal of Maritime Research”, vol. 33(2),

UNECE (2017), Single Window Interoperability. Recommendation No. 36. ECE/TRADE/431, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, Geneva, (accessed: 1.10.2022).

UNECE (2018), White Paper. Data Pipeline. ECE/TRADE/C/CEFACT/2018/8, United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, Geneva, (accessed: 1.10.2022).

Wallace C., Manning L. (2020), Food Provenance: Assuring Product Integrity and Identity, CAB Reviews,

Wilde A., Haughey S., Galvin-King P., Elliott C. (2019), The Feasibility of Applying NIR and FT-IR Fingerprinting to Detect Adulteration in Black Pepper, “Food Control”, vol. 100,

Zhang J., Bhatt T. (2014), A Guidance Document on the Best Practices in Food Traceability, “Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety”, vol. 13(5),