The Post-pandemic Consumer: Evidence from Empirical Research of Four Generations of Consumers




consumer behaviour, consumer generations, household, change, COVID-19 pandemic, the war in Ukraine


Objective: The article analyses the changes in Polish consumer behaviour during the pandemic caused by the SARS CoV-2 virus. Changes in behaviour identified in 2022 were also analysed through the crisis caused by the war in Ukraine.

Research Design & Methods: Literature studies and original empirical research were conducted. The empirical research – an online survey using the Ariadna National Research Panel – was carried out in two waves, the first in November 2020 on a sample of N = 1,045 consumers and the second in November 2022 on a sample of N = 1,100 consumers. The online survey technique made it possible to reach adult consumers from all regions of Poland.

Findings: The research findings confirmed that consumer behaviour changed during the pandemic. Above all, consumers did more things remotely. They also took better care of their health and hygiene, and used payment cards more often than they had. Going out to cultural institutions and using the services of catering establishments were subject to the most radical restrictions. Respondents were mainly unsure of whether the two crises increased their household spending.

Implications/Recommendations: Compared to 2020, in 2022 the percentage of consumers undertaking various types of preventive and prudent behaviours due to the pandemic decreased. This may indicate a desire among consumers to return to the lifestyle and behaviours they led before the pandemic. Consumers seem to be slowly forgetting about the pandemic, absorbed by another real threat: the war in Ukraine.

Contribution: The conducted research contributes to the development of the theory of consumer behaviour. It shows changes in the behaviours of these entities caused by the pandemic situation, which they have not experienced so far. It complements the research on the behaviour differentiation of individual generations of consumers (Z, Y, X, and BB).


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How to Cite

Maciejewski, G. (2024). The Post-pandemic Consumer: Evidence from Empirical Research of Four Generations of Consumers. Krakow Review of Economics and Management Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego W Krakowie, 4(1002), 11-28.